Keith M. Hunter

**360 Days as an Ideal Earth Standard:**

If the ancients were right that at some point in the past the
earth suffered a general increase to its orbital period, transforming
the earth year from 360 days to 365.2421897 days, such a change, were it
to have occurred, could not have done so without also causing various
other celestial transformations. As indeed, it is well established in
science that the physical motion of one astronomical body, so affected,
can influence the characteristics of other nearby objects, or even
aspects of its own self. One clear example of the former worthy of
citation, and well known to astronomers, is that a change to the speed
of the axial rotation of the earth directly affects the orbital distance
between the earth and the moon.

It is exactly these sorts of changes that form the very basis of
the proof of a once existent earth year of 360 days; specifically, by
way of an intriguing set of physical associations found to link the
proposed tropical year increase (from 360 days to 365.2421897 days), to
an apparent increase in both the physical size of the earth, and also
the mean distance separating the earth and moon - both of which are
subtly hinted at as occurring alongside the earth year transformation,
as detailed in the Egyptian myth, related previously. Indeed, as part of
the proof, the 360 degree circle used in geometry itself, is also
revealed to have been based originally upon 360 days; unit intervals
completing a full ideal earth orbit.

In an evaluation of such changes, what actually brings the
decisive mathematical connections to light is a distinct relationship
that would appear to exist between the primary units of angular measure,
as known to modern day geometers, and various real distance units of
the imperial system. A careful examination of the earth tropical year
with respect to both the physical size of the planet, and also the moon
orbit, reveals the critical connections. Before proceeding directly
though to the evaluation, a brief mention of the basic units of angular
measure must be had.

**Angular Measure: The Basics**

In the modern age it is quite well established that the most
fundamental unit of angular measure is the degree, which is taken to be
1/360th of the sweep of a circle; a 360 degree circle thus being the
full completed form. More refined angular units are of course also used
though to specify more acute angles. And this is done following a
base-60 progression, through which degrees are split up into 60 smaller
parts, each called a minute of arc, and still further, each minute of
arc is split up into 60 even smaller parts, known as seconds of arc. A
full circle may be composed then of either:

360 degrees

21600 minutes of arc (360 x 60)

1296000 seconds of arc (21600 x 60)

In general, one should of course realise that usually
combinations of the above measures are used to specify a given angle.
For example, the axial tilt of the earth is usually expressed as about
23 degrees, 26 minutes and 15 seconds (generally speaking this angle
changes slightly every year); an angle responsible for the seasons.

What is of course important to realise is that in geometry, all
of these expressed numerical values, set in accordance with a 360 degree
circle (i.e. degrees, minutes, and seconds of arc), are angles, and
thus are abstract in their nature. They do not refer to anything
specific as such. Or at least, they are not thought to by modern
geometers.

**The Earth Year & the Physical Size of the Planet**

With respect to the physical geometry of the earth, angular measures composed of a primary 360 degree circle including minutes, and seconds of arc, are the primary unit intervals used to map the planet as a whole. Under this system, the equator of the earth is representative of zero degrees latitude, with the Greenwich meridian marking zero degrees longitude.

Within this matrix, one may thus specify any position upon the
earth’s surface either north or south of the equator, and east or west
of the Greenwich meridian. Of course, such a system could be applied to
any planetary body of any size, using a 'template' of a 360 degree
circle, due to the fact that it is based upon angular values, and not
arc length measures that actually play out over the real surface of a
given body. That being said, upon the issue of the ‘real’ measurements
of a given form, one may indeed employ basic angular measures as a means
to derive a set of real arc length values over such a body.

Respecting the earth, one may actively cite both the geographical
mile and also the nautical mile as examples of real distance measures
derived from angular ‘sweeps’ over the surface of the planet. In the
case of the former, the geographical mile is the arc length distance
swept out over the surface of the earth by a single minute of arc upon
the circular plane of the earth’s equator; equal to 1/21600 of the
earth’s equatorial circumference. By contrast, the nautical mile is a
unit measure based upon the total circumference of the earth from pole
to pole, which is elliptical in nature; being also 1/21600 of such a
surface circumference.

Based upon the known dimensions of the earth, the actual values of these two noted measures may be calculated as follows:

Earth Equatorial Circumference = 24902.4 statute miles

Elliptical (pole to pole) Circumference = 24860.2 statute miles

Therefore:

Geographical mile = (24902.4 x 5280) / 21600 = 6087.25333…feet

Nautical mile = (24860.2 x 5280) / 21600 = 6076.93777…feet

As one can see, the nautical mile is just less than the
geographical mile; a result of the planet being compressed along its
axis due to its daily rotation, causing the earth to expand outwards at
its equator. Indeed, the very dynamics of this readily accounts for the
fact that the equator of the earth is circular and the polar
circumference of the earth is elliptical. (The plane of the equator is
at 90 degrees to the planet’s axis of spin).

With the above facts established, one is thus bound to suspect
almost intuitively then that were indeed the earth to have once
possessed a yearly orbit of precisely 360 days, then certain of its
other primary physical characteristics, would also have been different;
specifically, the physical circumference of the earth itself.

Moreover, in taking this point further; considering the exacting
nature of an earth year of precisely 360 days one would suspect that
were the earth in fact to have possessed such a year, it would also have
simultaneously possessed a physical circumference of such measure, so
as to actually be in harmony with the very value of its orbital period
i.e that 360 days fully completes one full journey about the sun. And
one would therefore expect also, what must be some sort of lawful
association between an increase of the earth year (from an ideal of 360
days to its present value), and an accompanying change to the physical
size of the earth.

But can this be demonstrated though?

A careful evaluation of the present-day value for the circular
circumference of the earth at the plane of its equator, would appear to
reveal the answer.

**An Ideal Geographical Mile**

Focusing upon the equatorial circumference of the earth, it can be seen that its fractional split into 21600 equal parts (minutes of arc), so generating the geographical mile, produces a value that when expressed in standard feet, does not appear too remarkable at all: 6087.25333…feet. And yet, were the earth to have once actively possessed 360 days per year, one would expect some sort of harmonic affinity between the value of its orbit and the actual size of the planet; an ordered correspondence of some sort.

To determine the truth of such an idea, one would be required to
lawfully determine nothing less than precisely just what would have been
the circumference of the earth, whilst under a year of 360 days. An
examination of the primary distance measures of the basic Imperial
System (as currently used in the United Kingdom and the United States)
would appear to reveal the decisive breakthrough.

Of the Imperial system of measures, the most commonly used are
the inch, foot, fathom, and the statute mile. In relation to one
another, they are as follows:

12 inches = 1 foot

6 feet = 1 fathom

880 fathoms = 1 statute mile (or 5280 feet)

In reviewing these measures it can be seen that the progression
from the foot unit to the fathom involves the multiplier 6. Indeed, in
the case of the already noted units of angular measure, it can also be
seen that they are similarly connected, via a base-10 multiple of this
figure i.e. 60. The significance of this readily becomes apparent when
one evaluates the current equatorial circumference of the earth
expressed specifically in terms of the fathom unit:

Equatorial circumference = 24902.4 statute miles

(24902.4 x 5280) / 6 = 21914112 fathoms

With the equator so converted, one is able to bring a most
remarkable mathematical association to light. For it can now be seen,
that the reduction of this very value by the exact ratio between the
current earth year and the suggested ideal of 360 days, produces a
figure very close to precisely 21600000, which is of the same numeric
sequence as the value given to the total number of minutes of arc that
complete a full circle:

365.2421897 / 360 = 1.014561638

21914112 / 1.014561638 = 21599586.64 fathoms

With: 21600000 – 21599586.64 = 413.3 fathoms

Also, comparing the ratios directly using the value 21600000 as a standard, one can derive the following:

365.2421897 / 360 = 1.014561638

21914112 / 21600000 = 1.014542222

From the above it can be seen then that there is an extremely
accurate match between the noted ratios; from which one might draw two
distinct conclusions. The first is that the primary distance units of
the Imperial System would appear to have been established not in
accordance with the size of the earth as it currently stands, but rather
in accordance with an earth size reduced from its present, by the same
ratio that governed the increase of the earth tropical year from an
ideal of 360 days. Secondly, the very reality of this fact strongly
implies that a general physical law of proportion exists linking the
transformation of the earth year to the transformation of the physical
size of the earth, upon its equatorial plane.

Given the truth of these two points, were the earth to have
possessed a 360 day year, the physical equatorial circumference of the
earth would have been precisely 21600000 fathoms, which would imply that
a geographical mile at such a time would be exactly 6000 ft (21600000 x
6 and divided by 21600 = 6000). One may thus call such a unit measure
an Ideal Geographical Mile, or IGM for short.

The claim hereby made, that a change to the earth’s tropical year
is directly proportional to a change to its physical circumference, and
that this is revealing of an actual physical law, is a bold one.
However, it is one that does have support from within the realm of
astronomy. Indeed, certain critical discoveries over the past few
hundred years concerning the motions of the planets have demonstrated
that proportional laws per se are without doubt operative within the
universe. And furthermore, such laws of this type have been found to
directly apply to all of the planets within the solar system. A slight
detour in history is thus called for to demonstrate the reality of this
fact.

**The Physical Validity of Laws of Proportion**

Without doubt, the greatest confirmation of the existence of the
reality of proportional laws in governing various changes to certain
aspects of planetary motion is to be found with the discoveries of
Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630 AD). During his lifetime Kepler was the
first to discover the general principles that governed the planets and
to explain the manner of their non-linear orbits about the sun. Thus was
he able to correct many errors that had existed in the realm of
astronomy even from ancient times. Today, the principles that Kepler
uncovered with regard to explaining the motions of the planets are
generally grouped into a set of 3 primary laws. Briefly, they are as
follows:

1) Planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits where the Sun is positioned at one of the two focal points.

2) A planet sweeps out equal areas in equal periods of time; the
area being swept out from the sun itself and not the centre of the
ellipse, which explains why they move faster in their orbits when
nearest to the sun and slower when they are further away from it.

3) The time taken for a planet to orbit the sun (orbital period) is related to its distance from the sun at its mean point of approach (semi-major axis), by a very precise mathematical law; a law generally referred to as Kepler’s ‘harmonic law’, expressed as follows:

Where **P** and **a** are ratios, and the numbers given are powers:

What this law essentially states is that the ratio of change of the
orbital period (p) of a planet (the total time taken for the planet to
complete a single orbit about the sun), when squared, is proportional to
the ratio of change of its semi-major axis (a) (mean distance
separating the planet and the sun), when cubed. Using this law one could
theoretically judge a planet against itself, assuming some significant
change to its orbital period. Or even confirm the truth of the law by
evaluating any two given planets together in the solar system. As an
example of the latter, an evaluation of the orbits of the earth and mars
will serve to illustrate this:

Mars Orbital period = 686.9297110 solar days

Earth Orbital period = 365.2421897 solar days

Earth Semi-major Axis (mean orbital distance between earth and sun)

= 81801193.26 IGM (92955901.43 statute miles)

Therefore:

686.9297110 / 365.2421897 = 1.880751266

1.880751266 squared = 3.537225328

3.537225328 cube-rooted = 1.523658277

And:

Mars Semi-major Axis = 81801193.26 x 1.523658277

= 124637065.17 IGM

According to the above result, Mars should have, in accordance
with Kepler’s law, a mean distance from the sun of 124637065.17 IGM.
And, actual observations do indeed reveal a figure very close to this; a
fact that offers considerable support to the principled validity of the
law:

124638661.47 IGM

**The Tropical Year & Earth Form, Transformed in Unison**

From the above one can clearly see then the importance of
Kepler’s Harmonic law for the planets of the solar system. Specifically,
the character of the law implies that the orbital period of a planet
determines its mean distance from the sun, and that the transformation
of the orbital period affects a distinct change to its mean point of
approach i.e. the length of its semi-major axis, as per the precise
combination of powers built into the law.

But how though does the reality of Kepler’s law support that
which was proposed earlier – that a change to the earth tropical year
would cause a simultaneous change to the physical circumference of the
earth?

The answer lies with an understanding of how the geometry of the
orbits of planets is related to that of their outward physical form.
Essentially, the geometry of a planetary orbit is exactly identical to
that of the geometry of the physical form of a planet. Both are
ellipsoid in nature. Thus, of the earth, the circumference of the planet
on the plane of the equator is perfectly circular, whereas the
circumference of the planet taken as a plane cut 90 degrees to the
equator, passing through the axis, is elliptical (i.e. viewed from the
‘side’ the curvature of the planet is that of a 2 dimensional ellipse).
Such facts also hold true for the very orbit of the earth, save only
that the ellipsoid form of the orbit is invisible. And yet be that as it
may, the mathematical geometry of both form and orbit is identical.
Thus:

1) The actual elliptical orbital path of the earth is the
mathematical equivalent of the earth’s physical (polar) elliptical
circumference.

2) The mean distance of approach of the earth to the sun, known
as its semi-major axis, is the mathematical equivalent of the equatorial
radius component of the physical earth.

3) The circular (invisible) equator of the earth orbit at 90
degrees to its actual orbital plane is in fact the equivalent of the
earth’s own physical circular equator. The former, one may thus
designate the ‘celestial equator’ of the earth’s orbit.

With an understanding of the association then between the
geometry of a planetary orbit and that of its physical form, one can
clearly grasp the correspondence between Kepler’s law and that which was
proposed earlier in this work.

Essentially, just as Kepler’s law relates a change in the earth tropical year to a change in the semi-major axis component of the earth’s orbit, via the noted powers of 2 and 3, the law described previously relates a change to the tropical year, to a (simultaneous) change also to the semi-major axis of the earth’s physical form i.e. its equatorial radius. In this latter instance however both components would appear to be transformed directly in proportion to one another, and thus the powers are 1 and 1. Given this, one may formally express the law as follows:

Where: TY & PE (e) are ratios:

TY = Tropical Year (present) / Tropical Year (past)

PE (e) = Physical Equator, Earth (present) / Physical Equator, Earth (past)

As an equation this law has the following form:

Where:

TY = Tropical Year (Present)

PE = Physical Equator, Earth (Present)

*ty* = Tropical Year (past)

*pe* = Physical Equator, Earth (Past)

The reality of the above stated law directly implies that were the earth to be ‘back-transformed’ to one containing 360 days from one of 365.2421897 days, then the physical size of the planet would also by necessity have to be reduced by exactly the same ratio as between these two orbital periods i.e. 1.014561638. And indeed, it is hereby suggested directly that such a back-transformation does reveal the state of the earth as was once manifest at some remote point in history, wherein there truly was an exacting harmonic correspondence between the value of its orbital period in days, and the value ascribed to the equatorial circumference of the earth in Ideal Geographical Miles; both of which conformed to the basic numeric sequence of the Babylonian measures: 360 & 21600, via a x60 multiplier.

The important to mention however, is that the numerical value of
360, nominally taken to be representative of a 360 degree circle (in
geometry), does in fact represent 360 days of an ideal earth year, with
the value 21600, actively representing the measure of the earth equator
in ideal geographical miles.

From the above noted law one can now actually use the very
measure of the tropical year to derive a value for the current
equatorial circumference of the earth based upon a standard of 360 days:

365.2421897 / 360 = 1.014561638

Earth Equator = 1.014561638 × 21600 = 21914.53138 IGM

(24902.87657 statute miles)

Compared with what is the known measured value for the equatorial circumference of the earth, there is very little difference:

24902.87657 – 24902.4 = 0.4765 miles

**Conclusions to be Drawn from the Above Evaluation:**

1) The Imperial System of measures including the ‘angular’
measures (the 360 degree circle including minutes and seconds of arc) of
the ancients were originally based upon the standard of an ‘ideal’
earth of 360 days.

2) The circumference of the ideal earth at the equator, expressed
in units of Ideal geographical miles, was in harmony numerically with
the total number of days in the earth tropical year via a ‘base-60’
multiplier i.e. from 360 days > 360 x 60 = 21600, expressed in units
of Ideal Geographical miles.

3) The proposed stated law linking a change in the tropical year to a change to the semi major axis of the earth’s form (equatorial radius), will likely act in perfect unison with Kepler’s law, which itself would reveal how any change to the earth tropical year would affect specifically the earth’s orbital semi-major axis.

As a result of the evidence presented, it would appear then that there is strong - albeit indirect - support for the notion that the earth did indeed at one time possess an ‘ideal’ tropical year of 360 days in conjunction with an equatorial circumference of precisely 21600 ideal geographical miles.

However, the evidence does not just rest upon the noted association between the tropical year and the physical size of the earth. Indeed, were one still to have any doubts, there is a further, utterly decisive connection, involving the orbit of the moon, that truly confirms beyond all reasonable doubt, a once existent earth year of 360 days. And this may be viewed in part two of the proof:

**Proceed to:**

A Once Existent Earth Year of 360 days (Part 2)