Keith M. Hunter
In addressing the issue of the global location of the Great Pyramid of Giza, the very first point that one might consider is just how knowledgeable the ancients were about the true dimensions of the earth. At least as far back as “known antiquity”, there exist some good estimates as to the general size of the earth (e.g. Eratosthenes). That being said however, there is no surviving information at all dating back much earlier to the time of the construction of the Great Pyramid, that gives any explicit indication as to what value the builders assigned to the size of the planet.
This does not however prevent further analysis, for there is nothing to stop one examining the global placement of the Great Pyramid of Giza set against the standard of the highest and most accurate earth model of the modern age. Indeed, by doing just this, if one could demonstrate a decisive governing principle for the placement of the structure in light of such a model, then one would be forced into the conclusion that the ancients themselves must have possessed an earth model almost identical to that developed by the most accomplished minds of this present age.
From a very careful evaluation of the placement of the Great Pyramid
of Giza set against the most advanced physical earth model of this
present age - the WGS84 model, it would appear that there exists a most
incredible mathematical linkage between the latitude placement of the
structure, and none other than the value for the tropical year of the
earth itself; one that, if indeed is actually representative of a
governing principle by which the latitude placement of the structure was
determined, forces one to accept that the ancient pyramid builders must
have possessed an earth ellipsoid model comparable to the WGS84 itself.
And moreover, that in the positioning of the structure globally – at
least respecting latitude - they placed it almost precisely where they
intended it to be, to an error of only a few dozen feet or so!
In contrast then to the previously mentioned 30 degree northwards placement theory, or even the refraction placement theory, both of which entertain the suggestion that the builders may have adjusted the position of the Great Pyramid to place it on a solid foundation, this new approach holds to no such requirement.
In evaluating the Great Pyramid of Giza against the earth form, the
primary values of the WGS84 earth model, including the global
co-ordinates of the pyramid itself, are as follows:
Equatorial radius of the Earth = 3963.190591 miles (6378.137 kilometres)
Inverse Flattening measure = 298.257223563
Great Pyramid of Giza Position :
Latitude (North):29 degrees, 58 minutes, 50.952 seconds of arc
Longitude (East):31 degrees, 09 minutes, 0 seconds of arc
The Proposed Intended Global Relation:
As one will recall from the evaluation of the earth tropical
year, it was shown via a set of proportional laws that the earth did at
some point in the past increase its orbital period from one of 360 days
per year, to one of 365.24218408 days per year. And that the critical
ratio between the two values is as follows:
365.2421840 / 360 = 1.014561622
Bearing this fact in mind, it is most astounding to find that this very ratio, simply multiplied by 10, would appear to be the decisive factor that determined the latitudinal placement of the Great Pyramid. This is revealed when one takes the ‘small circle’ circumference of the earth at the latitude of the structure, and divides it by the elliptical arc length displacement (separation) from the pyramid and the equator. The following diagram details the relevant components:
Using units of British Feet, analysis reveals the following :
Under the WGS84 earth model, with the latitude of the Great
Pyramid of Giza set at 29:58:50.952 N, the following measures hold true:
The circular ‘small circle’ circumference of the Earth at the latitude of the Great Pyramid = 110443685.33838 feet
The elliptical arc length from the equator to the Great Pyramid = 10885784.94485 feet
Therefore: 110443685.33838 / 10885784.94485 = 10.145679516…
Compare with the ratio between the current earth tropical year and the ideal of 360 days, as noted previously:
365.2421840 / 360 = 1.014561622
As one can see, the ratio respecting the Great Pyramid is almost exactly 10 times the ratio of change for the earth tropical year; a relationship that is highly suggestive. However, in order to determine just how forceful the relationship is, one must calculate the level of discrepancy from an exact x10 value.
Assuming therefore the deliberate intention to globally site the
Great Pyramid such that the small circle circumference of the earth at
the latitude of the structure was exactly 10.14561622… (10 x
1.014561622…) times the elliptical arc length from the centre of the
structure to the equator; then under the WGS84 model, the Great Pyramid
itself would have to be situated at precisely 29:58:51.44895 N. If this
were so, then the following would be true :
Circumference of the Earth at the latitude of the Great Pyramid = 110443505.6744 feet
Arc length from the equator to the Great Pyramid = 10885835.1489 feet
Therefore: 110443505.6744 / 10885835.1489 = 10.14561622…
And, comparing the arc length component given above with that derived under a position of 29:58:50.952 N:
10885835.1489 - 10885784.9448 = 50.2 feet
As one can see from the analysis then, the difference from a perfect x10 multiple of the earth tropical year increase is extremely low; such that were one to have positioned the Great Pyramid a mere 50 feet further to the north, then the correspondence would be exact. When one considers that the base line length of the structure itself is some 756 feet, one can easily see that the error is well ‘contained’ within the structure. In sum, one can therefore be highly confident that the specified ratio association was intended, and thus represents the governing principle that determined the latitude placement of the structure.
With an acceptance of the ‘x10 tropical year increase’ theory of
placement, one is led inexorably to certain very distinct conclusions
regarding the Great Pyramid of Giza; all of which necessitate that the
builders were a part of an extremely advanced civilisation. In brief,
they are as follows:
1) The builders were fully knowledgeable as to the true
dimensions of the earth and possessed an elliptical earth model at least
as advanced as the WGS84 model.
2) The builders must have been familiar with advanced elliptical
mathematics and algebra, in order to actually calculate the elliptical
arc length up from the equator to the latitude as would give them the
x10 tropical year ratio.
3) The builders would have also had to possess extremely fine
mechanical instruments for sighting the global co-ordinates at which to
construct the Great Pyramid. Essentially, not only would they have had
to do the positional calculation ‘on paper’, they would have had to
actually physically go to the spot they had determined should be the
centre of the structure.
4) Perhaps the most intriguing conclusion, bearing in mind the precise nature of the mathematical relationship, is that the builders themselves would in all likelihood not have been ancient Egyptians at all. For indeed, the intention to employ the noted physical ratio forces one to admit that the ratio value itself singularly determined the latitude of the Great Pyramid of Giza, and that the builders may well have surveyed the entire longitudinal sweep of the small circles in both the northern and southern hemisphere upon land, as would give them the proscribed x10 ratio. In effect, a truly global civilisation would appear to have been responsible for the structure. The idea that it was conceived and built purely locally would seem to be extremely unlikely.
References The Astronomical Almanac 2003. (2001) The Stationary Office. Page K13
All images of the Great Pyramid above are from Sarah's recent visit to the Giza Plateau in Egypt.