Keith M. Hunter
To the ancients it was an undeniable fact that the earth suffers periodic global devastation due to celestial forces at long range intervals; the major sacred works of the most learned readily attesting to this. The Kolbrin, the Bible, the Pistis Sophia, The Metamorphoses of Ovid, and also Plato’s Timaeus, all serve as good examples.
But what though of the science of earth changes. The texts as noted are generally of a religious or mythological character, and require some decoding. And as we all know, interpretation is everything. Now amongst orthodox academics, the generally accepted view is that the ancient accounts of destruction are not meant to be taken literally at all. They are in no way thought describe real world events, and must be interpreted symbolically, or from a psychological perspective.
That being said however, were one indeed, to discover scientific evidence of periodic earthbound devastation, actually embedded within the geophysical record of our planet, then one is in a position to effectively vindicate the accounts of the ancients; the earth changes that they recorded being assigned a true place in history. The question therefore is, does such evidence exist? Most assuredly. To grasp the truth however first requires that one study the words of the ancient texts absent any orthodox preconceptions.
Now on the face of it, evaluated objectively, the ancient stories appear to describe various global disasters involving the earth suffering a combination of meteor strikes, sudden earth changes in global temperature, intense heating or radiation effects, extreme seismic activity, and even the very light of the sun itself being obscured. Now if there is truth to such accounts, one would expect them to show up in the earth’s geological record over the recent period. And indeed, they do. And one may first consider such findings, as detailed in a recent book by Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas, called Uriel’s Machine; a work whose very focus is on the links between sacred texts and science.
Now within this book Knight and Lomas discuss the work of Edith & Alexander Tollman; geologists based at the Institute of Geology at Vienna University, who found evidence that the earth was hit by 7 major cometary fragments circa 7640 BC. This was initially revealed by the study of tektites: small glassy objects found scattered in S Shaped patterns over large parts of the earth’s surface.
Irregular, rounded shaped rocks, tektites are formed by molten rock being ejected into the atmosphere, and then freezing into flattened and rounded spheres. Scientists now recognise that they are remnants of high energy cometary impacts, and that such rocks tend to be very old.
In 1970 Tektites were found embedded in fossilised wood in Australia and carbon dated to 9520 BP, or Before Present, + or – 200 years. Tektites were also found in Vietnam dated to about the same age.
With yet further confirmation of this date coming from the study of core samples taken from the Indian Ocean. But still further, yet more evidence emerged to support this date, following other lines of inquiry.
In 1908 there was a great air blast from a incoming meteorite in Russia at Tunguska. The devastation was so great that it caused a very marked blip in the Radio Carbon Calibration Curve which was identified using dendrochronology – the study of tree growth rings to determine the age of a tree.
Moreover, the Tunguska blast was so powerful that it destroyed at that time about 1/3 of the Ozone layer over the earth, allowing more ultraviolet radiation to penetrate the atmosphere. And this indeed resulted in an increase in the production of Carbon 14 in the atmosphere, producing a significant blip in the Radio Carbon Calibration Curve.
Now the Tollmans reasoned then that a large cometary impact would always result in destroying large chunks of the Ozone Layer. And in looking at the Radio carbon calibration curve, as produced by researchers Chroma and Becker, a very pronounced increase in Carbon 14 was indeed to be found at about the time of 9500 years before present, or about 7500 BC, strongly coinciding with the date of 7640 BC, as originally cited by the Tollmans based upon the Tektite dating. And indeed, in looking at the fossil record, scientists further established that this date coincided with some 10,000 species being suddenly wiped out. The scientific evidence is thus very conclusive that a major cometary bombardment struck the earth at about 7640 BC, with the Tollmans deducing that most of the 7 noted cometary impacts were at deep ocean sites.
Now in progressing still further in their studies concerning major earth changes as related in Uriel’s Machine, Knight and Lomas uncovered yet more evidence establishing this date as marking intense global upheaval. However, in doing so they were also able to confirm a second date of disaster – and this using a technique known as Magnetostratigraphy, whereby the polarity of the earth’s magnetic field is employed to date rock samples. Essentially, Knight and Lomas reasoned that friction from an incoming comet penetrating through the atmosphere would generate a powerful electric current, and that this would in turn generate an intense magnetic field at right angles to itself; one that would be far stronger than the earth’s natural magnetic field. Consequently, remnant magnetisation effects should exist embedded within rock samples, as would confirm a cometary impact, and allow one to fix its date. And this indeed proves to be the case.
Employing the technique of Magnetostratigraphy, Knight and Lomas found that in the last 10000 years there were 2 times when the direction of the earth’s magnetic field suffered an abrupt change, suggesting an outside impulse. The first was a very close match to the date previously noted, of 7640 BC. The second date uncovered, being more recent, at 3150 BC. In other words, in addition to 7640 BC, another cometary impact of great consequence must have occurred around the time of 3150 BC also. And indeed, such has been independently verified using alternative methods to Magnetostratigraphy, by one Professor Liritzis of the University of Rhodes, whose own studies reveal that at about 3150 BC, there most certainly was a great cometary impact, in the Mediterranean Sea.
Now the actual date of 3150 BC is of great interest. For whereas in respect of 7640 BC, practically nothing is known of the existent civilisations upon the earth at this time, this is not quite the case with regard to 3150 BC. One may note for example that this latter date is widely recognised by scholars as marking the rise of the Egyptian Dynasties. Moreover, one may also cite the rise of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Centred around its great cities Harappa and Mohenjo-daro it emerged very suddenly about the same time; a sharp divergence from the village cultures that preceded it in levels of material culture, scale, and organization. And still further, one could also note the commencement date for the beginning of the last Great Cycle of the Mayan Long Count Calendar: 3114 BC. The full length of the cycle being set at precisely 1872000 days in length - some 5125 years - the Long Count only just recently reset to zero upon the 21st of December 2012 in our era, to begin the next cycle.
In light of these facts, one may suggest therefore that following earth changes of extreme intensity civilisation was rapidly reorganised, with quite possibly various calendrical traditions in certain parts of the world being established anew. Indeed, one might speculate that the Mayan Long Count was set at zero to mark the time of the disaster, in the same way that the birth of Christ was used to mark a new age under the Christian religion.
Leaving behind the work of Knight and Lomas, one may indeed go back still further in time, several millennia prior to the date range considered even by these scholars, and in doing so uncover yet more evidence of great earth changes and global disaster. Once more, a meteor shower of extreme intensity, and in this instance, associated with devastating volcanic activity. The date in question as isolated by scientists is some 12900 years ago, or 10900 BC, and again, it rests upon the dating of Tektite, or ‘melt-glass’ samples, uncovered at certain key sites in the United States, Europe, and also the Middle East. Now as with the previous date of 7640 BC, the disaster of 10900 BC was itself also responsible for the destruction of a great many animal species, including such as mammoths. And this of course in addition to its devastating impact on human life during this era. It was indeed a veritable swarm of cosmic objects that hit the earth at this time; the cause of great earth changes.
Now one further consequence of the meteor storm that struck in 10900 BC, is that it appears to have triggered certain extreme volcanic activity. And in this regard, one may point to a notable super volcano located in Germany called Laacher See, the name given to the lake situated in the caldera of the ancient volcano itself, near the city of Bonn. The last time that this volcano erupted with devastating consequences, was in fact upon the very date of the noted meteor shower, as Prof. Erik Klemetti remarks:
"There is some suggestion that the Laacher See eruption could have had a strong effect on the climate of Europe after the eruption and the human populations living there at the time. Although it has been quiet since the climactic eruption ~12,900 years ago, the caldera should still be considered potentially active as CO2 seeps exist in some parts of the lake, suggesting that there is still magma degassing under the lake. In fact, the CO2 can be a hazard, supposedly killing some Medieval monks in their sleep."
Now the effects of a super volcano eruption can cover a vast area, with up to 90% of people being killed even many, many miles from the epicentre. The diagram on screen as produced by scientists reveals the scope and intensity of the Laacher See eruption. But indeed, the greatest danger from such an eruption is from ash and not lava. The following list details the destructive effects of just ash, which can cause a whole series of major earth changes:
Kill and sicken humans and animals
Trigger rainfall causing mudslides known as lahars
Severely disrupt air, road and rail transport
Crush buildings – 30 cm of dry ash is enough to collapse a roof
Contaminate water supplies
Kill crops and other vegetation
Having dealt now with 3 destructive events uncovered by science that afflicted the earth deep in the past well beyond recorded history, it would be well to consider certain earth changes of great global and regional significance, in more recent times. Beginning first by consideration of an event that occurred only some 1500 years ago; yet another meteor shower of great destructive power, one that was accompanied by a great comet. In this instance the evidence comes from a combination of actual historical records and scientific studies of tree rings. Beginning in 530 AD both Mediterranean and Chinese Chroniclers reported an unusual meteor shower striking the earth, with a very specific reference in 540-41 AD of the sighting of a comet in Gaul so vast that the whole sky seemed on fire. Now this particular time period does coincide also with the collapse of the Roman Empire. And indeed, at this time the Roman Emperor Justinian did attempt to seize lost territory and halt the decay. A plan that ultimately failed in the face of the great environmental upheaval from the effects of the meteor storm.
Now moving forwards in time only a few hundred years, the next celestial event of apparent global significance that one may consider, occurred in 774 AD. And here one does have a certain mystery to resolve. From the study of Cedar Trees scientists were able to determine that in this year a great cosmic explosion occurred, evidenced by a sudden increase in Carbon 14 in the year in question. And this may be taken together with a citation from a 13th century English Chronicler noting that ‘In the year of our Lord 776, fiery and fearful signs were seen in the heavens after sunset, and serpents appeared in Sussex, as if they were sprung out of the ground, to the astonishment of all.’ Now in the article in question as referenced, the scientists appear to dismiss the idea of a supernova or great solar flare. Were one thus to attempt to account for the noted explosion, one might consider something similar to a Tunguska type event, due to the Carbon 14 increase. That said however, there is yet one other alternative: a celestial body that came close to the earth, and engaged in a sudden flare-up, as was the case with comet P17 Holmes quite recently.
On October the 24th 2007, Comet 17P/Holmes shocked astronomers with a spectacular eruption. In less than 24 hours, the 17th magnitude comet brightened by a factor of nearly a million, becoming a naked-eye object in the evening sky. By mid-November the expanding comet was the largest object in the solar system - bigger even than the Sun. Now since then, the comet has faded back to invisibility.
And one may see this in the infrared spectrum of NASA’s Spitzer Telescope. It is thus quite conceivable then, that a comet made a close pass by the earth in 774 AD and engaged in a sudden flare-up similar to Comet 17P/Holmes, and that this disturbed the Carbon 14 balance leading to a sudden upswing, producing the apparent signature of a cosmic explosion.
Now moving forwards yet again in time, several centuries to the Late Middle Ages, one arrives at a time of immense global upheaval and major earth changes, when a massive environmental catastrophe struck the earth causing extraordinary levels of death the world over. The time in question is the mid-14th century. And it is a time that is often misunderstood. If one consults the standard history books one will note that during the middle of this century a great plague swept throughout many parts of the world, from China on to Europe: The bubonic plague, or Black Death as it was called. Now concerning Europe in particular, the history books tell us that it arrived in the West via the Silk road and merchant ships from Asia, reaching its height of intensity between the years 1347 to 1351 AD. Estimates put forth indicate that Europe suffered a population reduction of between 30 and 60%, with the global estimate for loss of life being about 1/5 of the worldwide population at the time.
Now on the face of it, the narrative as just given, might well lead one to assume almost without question that the bubonic plague itself was the primary cause of the great loss of life at this time. The truth however is quite different when one consults records from the period in question. Indeed, there would appear to be strong evidence that the earth changes had a celestial causation. Writing in their book, The Cosmic Winter, Victor Clube and Bill Napier, examining the evidence at hand, cite from a Chronicler at the time, that in the year 1345 AD, “Between Cathay and Persia there rained a vast rain of fire; falling in flakes like snow and burning up mountains and plains and other lands, with men and women; and then arose vast masses of smoke; and whosoever beheld this died within the space of half a day.”
Now what would fit best as the solution to these observations? A short-period bombardment of our planet by comets or comet dust, in combination with, one must suspect, some heighted measure of earthbound volcanic activity. In essence, the 1345 AD event was similar in many ways to the 10900 BC event, though of less intensity. And in support of this one may recall the citation from professor Klemetti with respect to Laacher See, speaking of magma degassing, and of the threat from CO2, wherein he made reference to Medieval monks being killed in their sleep due to Carbon Dioxide. In noting this point one is bound to suspect that the 1345 event involved some sort of intense regional geophysical disruption, brought about by a low level celestial bombardment. And that this was responsible for releasing, to quote the chronicler of the time, “vast masses of smoke” – and this combined with high levels of CO2. Essentially, those that died within the space of half a day from taking in the smoke, most likely suffered oxygen starvation, in addition to contamination of their lungs from particulate matter.
In evaluating the mid 14th century event then, it would seem that the Black Death came after a general collapse of civilisation at that time; the primary trigger for the collapse itself being a celestial event; one that contaminated the earth’s environment, resulting in crop failures, famine, great social unrest, wars, revolution, and mass migrations. All of which ultimately and inevitably led to the spread of disease, and the emergence of the Black Death.
Now to summarise, one can see then that over the course of the last 13000 years or so our planet has suffered many great earth changes global in scale; all resulting from various destructive encounters with certain celestial forces. And that the time periods between such events are certainly not uniform. Moreover, in consideration of the intervals as given between the first 4 listed events, separated by several millennia at a time, it would not be unreasonable to suggest that they were themselves punctuated by a series of lesser disasters, similar to those that have most recently struck the earth. It is simply the fact that there is not enough information at hand to really uncover the details.
That being said however, in terms of the earth changes as have been discussed, though a slight question mark might hang over the 774 AD event, the evidence from all other events considered very clearly supports the contention that the earth has suffered greatly from intense meteor showers in the recent past. Now the stress here is on the word intense, for in truth the earth passes through a series of well known meteor showers every year it orbits the sun. But these are of such low level intensity as to constitute no real threat. The grand disasters by contrast, actually involve the earth passing through meteor streams of great consequence. And this leads on to an obvious question: where exactly do these intense meteor streams come from? What is the essential origin of this threat? Once more, the astrophysicists have the answer.
In their book, “The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes,” the authors, as listed, cite non other that Victor Clube and Bill Napier, as previously noted, referencing their work “The Cosmic Winter,” to address these very questions. The solution was to be had by Clube and Napier, through a deep analysis of the orbital patterns of several meteor showers that do indeed hit the earth each year on a regular basis.
Using sophisticated computer software, they carefully looked backward for thousands of years, tracing the orbits of comets, asteroids, and meteor showers until they uncovered something astounding. Many meteor showers are related to one another, such as the Taurids, Perseids, Piscids, and Orionids. In addition, some very large cosmic objects are related: the comets Encke and Rudnicki, the asteroids Oljato, Hephaistos, and about 100 others. Every one of those 100-plus cosmic bodies is at least a half-mile in diameter and some are miles wide. And what do they have in common? According to those scientists, every one is the offspring of the same massive comet that first entered our system less than 20,000 years ago!
Clube and Napier calculated that, to account for all the debris they found strewn throughout our solar system, the original comet had to have been enormous.
They also calculated that, because of subtle changes in the orbits of Earth and the remaining cosmic debris, Earth crosses through the densest part of the giant comet clouds about every 2000 to 4000 years.
With respect then to the earth’s orbit, and the meteor showers that exist within its general vicinity, the work of Clube and Napier reveals that such streams themselves are essentially modelled by incoming celestial objects; and that one comet in particular was responsible for creating the debris stream patterns as dominate. Now one must of course suspect that the asteroid belt itself between Mars and Jupiter played a part in this, in that an incoming object penetrating deep into the solar system from without, would draw a measure of material from the asteroid belt further inwards, to establish certain meteor streams.
Now it is interesting to note that the great meteor shower that occurred circa 540 AD was itself accompanied by a Great Comet; one so vast that it filled the whole sky, as sighted above Gaul. In view of this one is bound to suggest therefore that with the arrival of any Great Comet in the general vicinity of the earth, a disruptive stream of material may be drawn towards our planet from the asteroid belt. Being gravitationally pulled along by the comet, were the debris to fall under the earth’s dominant influence, interaction could cause havoc. Of course, it would then follow that there would be a settling down of the material to form some sort of established pattern, with the earth recovering from the intense contact of the initial encounter. And this indeed is what appears to have happened in 540 AD.
Now it is important to state with respect to all of the noted destructive earth changes evaluated, that one cannot be certain that a great cometary body of some sort directly accompanied each meteor stream. Or that if one did, it was the same celestial body every time. One cannot be certain. Indeed, as per the work of Clube and Napier, the earth would appear to pass though certain hazardous streams originally established in the deep past every few centuries or millennia, due merely to subtle orbital variations over time. And thus a newly sighted celestial body drawing fresh material inwards to the earth from the asteroid belt, is not always the case. Essentially, the earth may periodically cross through an old established meteor stream without the presence of the original comet responsible for creating it. Moreover, one also cannot discount the possibility that the earth suffers impact from the occasional lone rogue object; the 1908 Tunguska event most definitely seeming to qualify in this regard. These are all important considerations.
In stating them though, it would be well to cite from Clube and Napier further as to the possible characteristics of the Great Comet in question as alluded to previously, that they believed specifically responsible for creating the dominant meteor streams.
"The progenitor of comet Encke and the Taurids, supposing it to have been about 20 km in diameter, would, at its closest approaches to the Earth, have attained a magnitude -12, approaching that of the Moon and sufficient to throw shadows at night. It would have appeared as an intense yellow spot of light surrounded by a circular coma probably larger than the full Moon, with a tail stretching across a large part of the sky ... graduating from bluish white near the nucleus to a deep red in colour... If the disintegration history revealed by the current debris took place within the sight of men, then there would have been occasions when subsidiary comets, perhaps even an array, would have been observed. There would be greatly enhanced seasonal fireball activity, rising to enormous levels at periodic intervals corresponding to a strong commensurability between the orbital periods of Earth and Encke; and the risk of Tunguska-like impacts would have been greatest."
Concerning the Great Comet described then by Clube and Napier, that they determined first entered our solar system some 20,000 years ago, one is bound to consider the gravitational capture of the object by the sun. Indeed, were this to have occurred with some level of stability achieved, with an orbital period established within a range of some several thousand years or so, there is the distinct possibility that one or more of the destructive events noted in this presentation, deep in antiquity, were caused by this very comet. And in this regard, it is quite uncanny that the description given by Clube and Napier, as to what the comet would have looked like viewed from the earth, is very close to that contained within the ancient Egyptian books of the Kolbrin concerning the passage of The Destroyer; the name assigned to a great red comet that passed close to the earth causing death and destruction in some remote age. Indeed, one might speculate that the date of 3150 BC as detailed previously, was that of the true historical passage of this object.
Up & Coming Great Earth Changes?
Now one final point remains to be considered. Is it possible that in the very near future – perhaps the very immediate future – the earth will pass through another meteor stream of great consequence and destructive power? An ancient established stream, or perhaps one that will be newly created from the passage of a Great Comet whose arrival is very close at hand; be it a first time entrant, or an very old Comet, returning once more to inflict its wrath upon the earth…
Below: My video presentation of the above Earth Changes / Global Disaster essay, including visual images to aid in understanding the Meteor cycles embedded within the geophysical history of the earth: